New book: Miscellanies, Poetry, and Authorship, 1680–1800
Dr Carly Watson’s book, Miscellanies, Poetry, and Authorship, 1680–1800 examines the literary miscellanies of the late seventeenth and eighteenth centuries – an era described as ‘an Age of Miscellanies’.
Today’s miscellanies tend to be compendia of interesting facts or curious trivia – think Schott’s Original Miscellany – but three centuries ago miscellanies were at the forefront of literary culture. Dr Watson’s book, which is aimed at an academic audience, reveals how miscellanies changed the ways poetry was written, published, and read in the late seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.
What is a miscellany?
The word miscellany comes from the Latin miscellanea, meaning a hash of mixed ingredients. The English word has been applied to books since the late sixteenth century, but its meaning as a literary term has changed over time.
In the period that Dr Watson’s book covers, the word miscellany was used to refer to books with one author and books containing works by many authors. A miscellany could be any book offering an assortment of shorter works or extracts of different kinds. As the lawyer and writer William King wrote in 1709, it ‘is generally presum’d, that a Miscellany should consist of what the World most delights in, that is, Variety’.
Today, though, the word miscellany is usually used by scholars in a narrower sense, to mean a book containing works by more than two authors. This is the definition used by the Digital Miscellanies Index, a freely available database providing details of over 1,750 miscellanies published between 1557 and 1800.
Dr Watson’s book argues that we can better understand the cultural importance of miscellanies in the late seventeenth and eighteenth centuries if we let go of this more limited sense of what a miscellany is. Unlike most other studies of miscellanies in the period, Dr Watson’s book looks at both single- and multiple-author miscellanies, showing that miscellanies were a popular vehicle for authors publishing their own writing as well as editors collecting works by many writers.
Putting authors in the spotlight
Hundreds of books called miscellanies, and many more that could be thought of as miscellanies, were published between 1680 and 1800. Why did miscellanies become ubiquitous in this period?
'It is generally presum’d, that a Miscellany should consist of what the World most delights in, that is, Variety.'
For some scholars, it was because of the changing needs of readers: as more people learned to read, and more books were published, there was a growing market for miscellanies offering handy selections of material from the mass of literature in print.
Dr Watson’s book argues that this is only part of the story.
As well as catering to new readers and reading habits, miscellanies appealed to authors. From the 1680s to the 1730s, many leading authors, including Aphra Behn and John Dryden, edited miscellanies showcasing new writing by their friends and contemporaries. For ambitious young authors, publishing in miscellanies was a way of getting their work noticed. For those who might not otherwise have been able to publish their writing, such as schoolboys and young women, miscellanies offered the chance to see their work in print.
It was not just authors editing and contributing to miscellanies who boosted their numbers. Many authors chose to present collections of their own writing as miscellanies, emphasising the variety of the work they produced. Dr Watson’s book tells the stories of a number of these authors who deserve to be better known, including the Oxford-based writer Mary Jones, whose miscellany reveals a more diverse oeuvre than is sometimes appreciated, and Richardson Pack, an army officer-turned-writer who was inspired by the influential miscellanies of the late seventeenth century.
Understanding what people read
Much of the modern interest in late seventeenth- and eighteenth-century miscellanies has been driven by a desire to find out more about what people actually read in this period. What was in the hundreds of miscellanies that were published? Which authors were most popular?
Using newly available data from the Digital Miscellanies Index, Dr Watson’s book reveals the authors who were featured in the most miscellanies in each decade from the 1680s to the 1770s. It is no surprise that the big names of the era – John Dryden and Alexander Pope – are the ones readers were most likely to encounter in miscellanies for much of the period, but from the 1740s onwards earlier authors such as William Shakespeare and John Milton also appeared in relatively high numbers of miscellanies.
This innovative analysis suggests that miscellanies played a more important role than has previously been thought in cementing the canonical status of the great English writers of the past.
Miscellanies, Poetry, and Authorship, 1680–1800 shows that miscellanies were a vital part of the literary ecosystem of the late seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Most of the poetry published in them has been forgotten, but we can still be entertained and surprised by these multifaceted books, which remind us that variety is the spice of life.
Carly Watson, Miscellanies, Poetry, and Authorship, 1680–1800 (Cham: Palgrave Macmillan, 2021). xiii + 293 pp. ISBN 978-3-030-37065-7 (hardcover) / 978-3-030-37066-4 (eBook). £79.99 (hardcover) / £63.99 (eBook).
Please note: a free pdf download was previously available but has since been removed.
Image: Samuel Lewis, A Deception, c. 1780. National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC, USA. Gift of Max and Heidi Berry.
Published 10 May 2021